According to the World Health Organization more and more people are allergic to gluten or suffer from hypersensitivity or celiac disease. The most delicate is to be able to differentiate between these three cases: mode of manifestation of each disease and the differences between them?
CELIAC DISEASE OR INTOLERANCE
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease resulting from a dysfunction of the immune system of the human body because gluten protein is potentially dangerous, causing damage to intestinal tissue and villi. Creases and folds responsible for the assimilation and degradation of nutrients will be progressively altered. In the case of late diagnosis, the intestinal surface becomes smooth and the absorption surface becomes very small, of only a few square meters whereas in a normal individual it is 250 m2.
This situation causes malabsorption causing deficiencies in iron, calcium, vitamins such as B9 or B12.
Various symptoms characterize this disease including a very strong inflammation accompanied by diarrhea, bloating as well as abdominal pain and significant weight loss. In other people this can be manifested by a feeling of continuous tiredness, a headache, osteoporosis or arthritis. This disease can be diagnosed via a biopsy of the small intestine with evidence of villous atrophy.
Consequences: a complete and drastic exclusion of gluten even for products that contain traces. Daily vigilance is therefore essential for people suffering from this disease.
This is a classic allergy that is similar to any other allergy, such as egg or shellfish. However, it can worsen with the practice of physical activities helping the intestines to absorb the antigen.
Several symptoms characterize this allergy, such as subcutaneous swelling or rash, itching, difficulty breathing ... etc.
As a consequence of this allergy, avoid gluten even in compounds that contain very little.
HYPERSENSITOVITY TO GLUTEN
What's different about gluten sensitivity is that the symptoms can range from a feeling of digestive discomfort to more serious disorders, including alternating diarrhea and constipation, a feeling of continuous bloating, and others. symptoms such as sneezing, the watery eyes, sweating, cramps, rashes accompanied by fatigue, headaches and other unusual disturbances.
Since gluten hypersensitivity does not cause damage to the intestinal wall or other tangible consequences, its diagnosis is more delicate or even complex (no specific blood markers). It is therefore classified under the heading of functional diseases.
It should also be noted that gluten intolerance is assimilated during diagnosis to irritable bowel syndrome. It is also called colitis, functional colopathy or spasmodic colopathy. It affects a significant percentage of the population and constitutes about half of the reasons for consultation in the specialty gastroenterology. The care provided in this case consists of gastric bandages and transit retarders. To be well, it is mandatory to ban gluten-based cereals and products derived from its food.